Works Consulted...

Old Cincinnati Public Library
Works consulted, cited, piled up about the house, shelved, unshelved, bookmarked, dog-eared, found under the bed, used to protect my homemade black walnut table from coffee rings; works bought because I needed one chapter in them, because I just had to own them, because I really do want to read them; works that are brilliant, works that are middling, works that disappoint hope, but not works that I would cast into the flames of perdition because books are holy, most of them anyway; but all with some relation to things I've written.

I include abbreviations with the entries, but if I have not been consistent in their use, I at least hope I have been clear. You're bright people. You'll figure it out.  I'll keep adding to this list. just like I keep adding to the piles.

All works are printed unless indicated.

Works by Tolkien

The Hobbit, Houghton Mifflin (1966).

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, with E. V. Gordon, second edition edited and revised by Norman Davis, Oxford University Press (1967).

The Lord of the Rings, Single Volume 50th Anniversary Edition, Houghton Mifflin (2004). I cite by volume title, book, chapter, and page numbers. Thus, for example, FR 2.ii.245 refers to a page in The Council of Elrond.
  • FR - The Fellowship of the Ring.
  • TT - The Two Towers.
  • RK - The Return of the King.
The Silmarillion (Silm.) ed. Christopher Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin (1977).

The Silmarillion (Silm.) ed. Christopher Tolkien, Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin (2001).

Unfinished Tales (UT) ed . Christopher Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin (1980),

The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien (Letters), ed. Humphrey Carpenter with Christopher Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin (1981).

The History of Middle-Earth (HoME), vols. I-XII, ed. Christopher Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin (1984-1996).
  • The Book of Lost Tales, v. I (1984) -- BoLT.
  • The Book of Lost Tales, v. II (1984) -- BoLT.
  • The Lays of Beleriand, v. III (1985) -- Lays.
  • The Shaping of Middle-Earth, v. IV (1986) -- Shaping.
  • The Lost Road and Other Writings, v. V (1987) -- Lost Road.
  • The Return of the Shadow (The History of the Lord of the Rings, v. 1), v. VI (1988) -- Return.
  • The Treason of Isengard (The History of the Lord of the Rings, v. 2), v. VII (1989) -- Treason.
  • The War of the Ring (The History of the Lord of the Rings, v. 3), v. VIII (1990) -- War.
  • Sauron Defeated ((The History of the Lord of the Rings, v. 4), v. IX (1992) -- Sauron.
  • Morgoth's Ring, (The Later Silmarillion, v. 1) v. X (1993) -- Morgoth.
  • The War of the Jewels (The Later Silmarillion, v. 2) v. XI (1994) -- Jewels.
  • The Peoples of Middle-Earth, v. XII (1996) -- Peoples.
  • The History of Middle-Earth: Index, v. XIII, HarperCollins (2002) -- Index.

Roverandom, Houghton Mifflin (1998).

Smith of Wootton Major: Extended Edition, ed. Verlyn Flieger, HarperCollins (2005).

The Annotated Hobbit, annotated by Douglas A. Anderson, second edition, Houghton Mifflin (2002).

The Monsters and the Critics, and Other Essays, ed. Christopher Tolkien, HarperCollins (2006).

The Tale of the Children of Húrin, ed. Christopher Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin (2007).

The Legend of Sigurd and Gudrún, ed. Christopher Tolkien, HarperCollins(2009).

The Fall of Arthur, ed. Christopher Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin (2013).

Beowulf: A Translation and Commentary, ed. Christopher Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin (2014).

Tolkien On Fairy-stories, edd. Verlyn Flieger and Douglas A. Anderson, HarperCollins (2014).

Kullervo, ed. Verlyn Flieger, HarperCollins (2015).

The  Lay of Aotrou and Itroun, ed Verlyn Flieger. Harper Collins (2016).

Other Books and Articles

________, Catechism of the Council of Trent, transl. J. Donovan, James Duffy (1867).

Arduini, Roberto, and Claudio Testi, The Broken Scythe: Death and Immortality in the Works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Walking Tree (2012).

Attridge, Derek, Moving Words: Forms of English Poetry, Oxford (2015).

Baker, James V, The Lark in English Poetry, Prairie Schooner, Vol. 24, No. 1 (Spring 1950), pp. 70-79.

Barfield, Owen, History in English Words, Lindisfarne (1967).

________, Poetic Diction, Wesleyan University Press (1973)

________, The Rediscovery of Meaning and Other Essays, Wesleyan University Press (1985).

Bawcutt, Priscilla, The Lark in Chaucer and Some Later Poets, The Yearbook of English Studies,Vol. 2 (1972), pp. 5-12.

Bernthal, Craig, Tolkien's Sacramental Vision: Discerning the Holy in Middle Earth [(sic)], Angelico Press (2014).

Brodeur, Arthur Gilchrist, The Art of Beowulf, University of California (1959).

Brogan, Hugh, Tolkien's Great War, in Children and their Books: A Celebration of the Works of Iona and Peter Opie, edd. Gillian Avery and Julia Briggs, Oxford (1989) 351-67.

Burns, Marjorie, Perilous Realms: Celtic and Norse in Tolkien's Middle-Earth, University of Toronto Press (2005) e-book.

Carpenter, Humphrey, Tolkien: A Biography, Houghton Mifflin (1977).

Carpenter, Humphrey, The Inklings: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, Charles Williams, and their Friends, Ballantine Books (1978).

Carter, Lin, Tolkien: A Look Behind The Lord of the Rings, Ballantine (1969).

Chance, Jane, The Lord of the Rings: The Mythology of Power, revised edition, University of Kentucky Press (2001).

Chance, Jane, Tolkien's Art: A Mythology for England, revised edition, University of Kentucky Press (2001).

Chance, Jane, (ed.), Tolkien the Medievalist, Routledge (2003).

Chance, Jane, (ed.), Tolkien and the Invention of Myth, University of Kentucky Press (2004).

Chance, Jane, and Alfred K. Siewers, edd., Tolkien's Modern Middle Ages, Palgrave Macmillan (2005).

Chaucer, Geoffrey, Troilus and Criseyde, ed. Stephen  A. Barney, Norton (2006).

Clark, George, and Daniel Timmons, edd., J. R. R. Tolkien and His Literary Resonances, Greenwood Press (2000).

Christensen, Bonniejean, Gollum's Character Transformation in The Hobbit, in Lobdell (1975) 9-28.

Collingwood, R. G., with David Boucher, Wendy James, and Philip Smallwood, edd., The Philosophy of Enchantment: Studies in Folktale, Cultural Criticism, and Anthropology, Oxford (2007)

Conrad-O'Briain, Helen, and Gerard Hynes, edd., J R. R. Tolkien: the Forest and the City, Four Courts Press (2013).

Cook, Simon John, Tolkien's Lost English Mythology, Rounded Globe (2014) e-book.

Cook, Simon John, How to Do Things with Words: Tolkien’s Theory of Fantasy in Practice, Journal of Tolkien Research: Vol. 3: Iss. 1, Article 6. Available at:

Croft, Janet Brennan, War and the Works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Praeger (2004).

Croft, Janet Brennan, ed., Tolkien and Shakespeare: Essays on Shared Themes and Language, McFarland (2007).

Croft, Janet Brennan, Baptism of Fire: The Birth of the Modern British Fantastic in World War I, Mythopoeic Press (2015) e-book.

Croft, Janet Brennan, and Leslie Donovan, edd., Perilous and Fair: Women in the Works and Life of J. R. R. Tolkien, Mythopoeic Press (2015) e-book.

Curry, Patrick, Deep Roots in a Time of Frost: Essays on Tolkien, Walking Tree (2014).

Drout, Michael D. C., ed., The Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment, Routledge (2013).

Duriez, Colin, Tolkien and Lewis: The Gift of Friendship, Paulist Press (2003).

Eden, Bradford Lee, ed., The Hobbit and Tolkien's Mythology: Essays on Revisions and Influences, McFarland (2014).

Edwards, Raymond, Tolkien, Robert Hale (2014).

Fimi, Dimitra, Tolkien, Race, and Cultural History: From Fairies to Hobbits,  Palgrave Macmillan (2010).

Fisher, Jason, ed., Tolkien and the Study of his Sources: Critical Essays, McFarland (2011).

Flieger, Verlyn, A Question of Time: J. R. R. Tolkien's Road to Faërie, Kent State University Press (1997).

________, and Carl F. Hostetter, edd., Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on The History of Middle-earth, Greenwood Press (2000).

________, Splintered Light: Logos and Language in Tolkien's World, Kent State University Press (2002).

________, Interrupted Music: The Making of Tolkien's Mythology, Kent State University Press (2005).

________, Green Suns and Faërie: Essays on J. R. R. Tolkien, Kent State University Press (2012).

________, There Would Always Be a Fairy-Tale: More Essays on Tolkien, Kent State University Press (2017)

Floyd, Pink, The Dark Side of the Moon, Harvest Records (1973).

Forest-Hill, Lynn, Elves on the AvonTLS 8.7.05.

Fulk, R. D., Robert Bjork, and John D. Niles edd., Klaeber's Beowulf, Fourth Edition, University of Toronto (2008, reprinted with corrections 2014).

Fussell, Paul, The Great War and Modern Memory, Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Edition, Oxford University Press (2000).

Garth, John, Tolkien and the Great War: The Threshold of Middle-Earth, Houghton Mifflin (2003).

________, 'As under a green sea': visions of war in The Dead Marshes (2008) 9-21, in Wells (2008).

________, Tolkien at Exeter College, Exeter College (2014).

Gazzolo, Anne Marie, Moments of Grace and Spiritual Warfare in The Lord of the Rings, Thomas Nelson (2012), e-book.

Glyer, Diane Pavlac, They Company They Keep: C. S. Lewis and J. R. R. Tolkien as Writers in a Community, Kent State University Press (2007).

________, Bandersnatch: C. S. Lewis, J. R. R. Tolkien, and the Creative Collaboration of the Inklings, Kent State University Press (2015).

Grotta-Kurska, Daniel, J. R. R. Tolkien: Architect of Middle Earth, Running Press (1976).

Hall, Alaric, Elves in Anglo-Saxon England, Boydell Press (2009).

Hammond, Wayne G., and Christina Scull, J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator, Houghton Mifflin (2000).

Hammond, Wayne G., and Christina Scull, The Lord of the Rings: A Reader's Companion, Houghton Mifflin (2005).

Hammond, Wayne G., and Christina Scull, The J. R. R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Chronology, vol. 1, HarperCollins (2006).

Hammond, Wayne G., and Christina Scull, The J. R. R. Tolkien Companion and Guide: Reader's Guide, vol. 2, HarperCollins (2006).

Hammond, Wayne G., and Christina Scull, The Art of The Hobbit by J. R. R. Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2012).

Hammond, Wayne G., and Christina Scull, The Art of The Lord Of The Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2015).

Hazell, Dinah, The Plants of Middle-Earth: Botany and Sub-creation, Kent State University Press (2006).

Helen, Daniel, ed., Death and Immortality in Middle-earth, Proceedings of the Tolkien Society Seminar, Peter Roe Series XVII, Luna Press (2016),

Helms, Randel, Tolkien's World, Houghton Mifflin (1974).

Helms, Randel, Tolkien and the Silmarils, Houghton Mifflin (1981).

Higgens, Deborah A,  Anglo-Saxon Community in J. R. R. Tolkiens' The Lord of the Rings, Oloris (2014).

Hillman, Thomas, Jeremiah Burns, Simon Cook, Richard Rohlin, and Oliver Stegen, Do Androids Dream of Immortal Sheep: Dreams, Memory, and Enchantment at the End of the Third Age, in Rateliff (2018, forthcoming).

________, "These Are Not the Elves You're Looking for: Sir Orfeo, The Hobbit, and the Re-imagining of the Elves," Tolkien Studies 15 (forthcoming).

Homer, The Iliad, transl Robert Fagles, Penguin (1990).

Homer, The Odyssey, transl. Robert Fagles, Penguin (1996), electronic edition 2002.

Hostetter, Carl F., The Collected Vinyar Tengwar, Mythopoeic Society.
  • Volume 1 (Issues 1-10)
  • Volume 2 (Issues 11-20)
  • Volume 3 (Issues 21-30)
  • Volume 4 (Issues 31-40)
  • Volume 5 (Issues 41-50)
Hostetter, Carl F., Sir Orfeo: A Middle English Version by J. R. R. TolkienTolkien Studies 1 (2004) 85-123.

Isaacs, Neil D, and Rose A. Zimbardo, Tolkien and the Critics: Essays on J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings, University of Notre Dame (1968).

Judd, Walter S. & Graham A. Judd, Flora of Middle-earth: Plants of J. R. R. Tolkien's Legendarium, Oxford (2017).

Kilby, Clyde S, Tolkien and the Silmarillion, Harold Shaw (1976).

Kocher, Paul H., Master of Middle-Earth: The Fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, Ballantine (1972).

Lee, Stuart, and Elizabeth Solopova, The Keys of Middle-Earth: Discovering Medieval Literature Through the Fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, second edition, Palgrave Macmillan (2015).

Lewis, C. S., Surprised by Joy: The Shape of my Early Life, Harcourt Brace and World (1955).

________, The Collected Poems of C. S. Lewis, Don W. King, ed., Kent State University Press (2015)

Lindow, John, Norse Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Heroes, Rituals, and Beliefs, Oxford (2001).

Livingston, Michael, The Shell-Shocked Hobbit: The First World War and Tolkien's Trauma of the Ring, in Baptism of Fire (2015) ed. Croft.

Lobdell, Jared, A Tolkien Compass, Open Court (1975).

Lobdell, Jared, The Rise of Tolkienian Fantasy, Open Court (2005).

Nagy, Gergely, The "Lost" Subject of Middle-earth: The Constitution of the Subject in the Figure of Gollum in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien Studies 3 (2006) 57-79.

Nicolay, Theresa Freda, Tolkien and the Modernists: Literary Responses to the Dark New Days of the 20th Century, McFarland (2014).

Olsen, Corey, Exploring J. R. R. Tolkien's The Hobbit,  Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (2012).

Phelpstead, Carl, Tolkien and Wales: Language, Literature, and Identity, University of Wales Press (2011).

Rateliff, John D., The History of The Hobbit, revised and expanded one volume edition, HarperCollins (2011).

Rateliff, John D., ed. A Wilderness of Dragons: Essays in Honor of Verlyn Flieger, The Gabbro Head (2017, forthcoming).

Ryan, J. S., Tolkien's View: Windows into his World, Walking Tree (2009).

Ryan, J. S., In the Nameless Wood: Explorations in the Philological Hinterland of Tolkien's Literary Creations, Walking Tree (2013).

Shippey, Tom, The Road to Middle-Earth: How Tolkien Created a New Mythology, revised and expanded edition, Houghton Mifflin (2003).

Shippey, Tom, J. R. R. Tolkien: Author of the Century, Houghton Mifflin (2002).

Sisam, Kenneth, ed., Fourteenth Century Verse & Prose, Oxford (1921).

Thomas, Keith, Religion and the Decline of Magic: Studies in Popular Beliefs in Sixteenth- and Seventeenth Century England, Penguin (1991).

Vandiver, Elizabeth, Stand in the Trench, Achilles: Classical Receptions in British Poetry of the Great War, Oxford (2013).

Wade, James, Fairies in Medieval Romance, Palgrave Macmillan (2011).

Walker, Steve, The Power of Tolkien's Prose: Middle-Earth's Magical Style, Palgrave Macmillan (2009).

Wells, Sarah, ed., Tolkien 2005: The Ring Goes Ever On, Proceedings, 2 vols., The Tolkien Society (2008).

West, Richard C., 'The Interlace Structure of The Lord of the Rings' in Lobdell (1975), pp. 77-94.

Wodzak, Michael A. Seeing in the Dark, Seeing by the Dark: How Bilbo's Invisibility Defined Tolkien's Vision, in Eden (2014).

Wood, Ralph C.  The Gospel According to Tolkien: Visions of the Kingdom in Middle-earth. Westminster John Knox Press (2003).

Wynne, Patrick, and Carl F. Hostetter, Three Elvish Verse Modes: Ann-thennath, Minlamad thent / estent, and Linnod, in Flieger and Hostetter (2000), 113-39.

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